Causes of Infertility In Men and Women, These is a major concern and we want to take a deep dive into it.
We will dig deeply into the Causes of Infertility In Men and Women, the Epidemiology, Aetiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and its Treatments
Infertility is a medical condition that can cause physical, physiological, mental, spiritual and medical detriments to the patients.
Although Infertility is an important part of any fertility, this article will review the epidemiology, aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, investigations, management, complications, prognosis, newer advancements and conclusions on infertility both male and female.
DEFINITION OF INFERTILITY: Infertility is a condition defined by the male and female reproductive system due to the inability of achieving pregnancy most especially during a duration of time (12months and more) of unprotected sexual. It could be primary or secondary infertility.
Primary Infertility is a situation where a woman who was never pregnant and can’t conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse.
Secondary Infertility is a situation where a woman can’t conceive again after having at least one successful pregnancy.
EPIDEMIOLOGY: The prevalence of infertility in reproductive women in the western world is rated as one in every seven couples and about 10-30% of affected couples in Nigeria.
As a woman ages, her chances of infertility increases. In women Aged 15-34, infertility rates ranged from 7.3 – 9.1%,In Women aged 35-39, infertility rates increases to 25%, while women aged 40-44, infertility rates increases to 30%.
AETIOLOGY; The cause of infertility can come from one or both partners as it varies.
Causes Of Infertility In Women; Abnormal Menstruation, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Past Ectopic Pregnancy, Celiac Disease, Uterine Problems which includes: Uterine Fibroids, Endometriosis, Uterine Polyps, Blocked fallopian tubes, Ovarian Cyst, Polycystic Ovary syndrome, Structural Problems Of the Reproductive System, primary ovarian insufficiency.
Causes of Infertility In Men; Testicular Cancer and Treatments, Premature Ejaculation, Misuse of anabolic Steroids, low testosterone, Injury to the testicles, Enlarged veins in the scrotum, high heat exposure to the testicles from tight clothing, undescended testicles.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF INFERTILITY(Female); Anovulation which is divided into four classes namely; (Hypothalamic amenorrhea, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Premature Ovarian Failure, Pituitary Adenoma), Pelvic/Tubal Adhesions, Uterine Causes.
CLINICAL FEATURES OF INFERTILITY(Female); Irregular or absent menstruation, age, multiple miscarriages, diagnosis of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Cancer treatments, endometriosis, a known or suspected uterine or tubal disease.
CLINICAL FEATURES OF INFERTILITY (Male); an history of testicular trauma, an history, prior hernia surgery, prior use of chemotherapy, birth defect, infection.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS; Infertility is a highly complex disorder with significant effects on the couple as a whole. There can be and there are multiple causes of infertility that’s why the differential diagnosis can be extensive and a thorough workup is required to ensure that no disease is process is missed.
INVESTIGATIONS (male); Semen Analysis, Hormone Testing, Genetic Testing, Testicular Biopsy, Imaging, Scrotal Ultrasound.
INVESTIGATIONS(Female); Ovulation Testing, Ovarian Reserve Testing, Hysterosalpingography, imaging, Laparoscopy, Hysteroscopy, transvaginal ultrasound, Blood tests.
MANAGEMENTS; Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation, Lifestyle Changes, Tubal/Pelvic Adhesions, Invitro Fertilization Procedure, Intrauterine Insemination.
COMPLICATIONS; The three complications associated with infertility are; Ectopic Pregnancy, Multiple Gestation, Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Social Stigma, Relationship Troubles.
PROGNOSIS; The prognosis of infertility especially that of the female depends greatly on the individual and the underlying cause of infertility.
In cases where medications or simple surgical measures can be used to correct certain structural abnormalities, the results turns out positive.
Research has it that for accurate prognostic information, focus should be made on the patients rather than the condition and a fair share of control treatment decisions be made as it’s in record that the success rate is recorded that 9 out of 10 couples get pregnant after undergoing infertility treatments.
CONCLUSIONS; In all these i believe we do be more enlightened in the Causes of Infertility In Men and Women as Infertility posses many challenges as it affects your relationships and emotional it’s treatment can also be expensive straining your finances. Therefore time is an essential but intricate aspect of infertility care as it influences diagnosis, prognosis and success of Treatment. Visiting your health care provider on time determines the best treatment to help you succeed in expanding your family.